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Presión al precio de la vivienda: los costes de construcción se disparan a máximos ✅☝ Gie Gestión Integral ⭐
 Inicio    Presión al precio de la vivienda: los costes de construcción se disparan a máximos

Presión sobre los precios de la vivienda. La subida generalizada de las materias primas, la luz, la gasolina y el transporte ha disparado los costes de construcción generando un cóctel explosivo que preocupa, cada día más, a promotores y constructores por su difícil digestión en el corto plazo.

En 2021, los costes en edificación residencial se dispararon un 23,5% frente al descenso del 3,8% que registraron en el año 2020, según refleja el Índice de Costes Directos de Construcción que anualmente elabora la constructora ACR. Un incremento que sitúa el índice en 158,77 puntos, un nuevo máximo histórico desde que se publica esta serie.

Los costes de construcción se han convertido en la gran amenaza y el principal quebradero de cabeza del sector de la construcción y promoción en España, ya que, aunque las viviendas se han seguido construyendo, con algunos retrasos, el fuerte incremento experimentado, especialmente en los últimos meses, tendrá que ser asumido, tarde o temprano, por promotores, constructores o, por qué no, por el comprador final de la vivienda, aunque son varios los promotores que ya han reconocido que será difícil subir los precios de la vivienda lo suficiente como para compensar la inflación.

De hecho, según recoge el informe de ACR, este nivel de precios ha venido para quedarse y está teniendo impacto en el margen de todos los agentes que intervienen en la cadena inmobiliaria, dilatando el proceso de contratación y la puesta en marcha de los nuevos proyectos, que se analizan minuciosamente buscando vías de optimización que no repercutan en el precio final de la vivienda nueva.

A favor del sector promotor en España juega la escasez de obra nueva en el mercado. Apenas se construyen 100.000 viviendas anuales al año para un mercado con una demanda de unas 120.000-150.000 viviendas anuales conforme a la creación de nuevos hogares. Como revelaba recientemente un informe sobre el mercado residencial en España, prácticamente todo lo que se construye actualmente en España se vende. Un momento dulce para el sector promotor que podría verse truncado, no solo por la presión sobre los precios de una fuerte demanda sobre un producto escaso, sino también por unos costes de construcción disparados.

¿A qué se debe esta nueva escalada de los costes? “Esta subida está directamente relacionada con el incremento en el precio de las materias primas, la energía y el transporte y también fuertemente influida por la rotura de 'stock' en las cadenas de suministro, por lo que no es probable que los costes de construcción se estabilicen hasta que estas disfunciones se corrijan”, asegura Guillermo Jiménez Michavila, director general de ACR.

El contexto de incertidumbre, alimentado por tensiones geopolíticas y la evolución de las variantes del coronavirus, “hace que sea difícil anticipar el comportamiento de los precios en los próximos meses”, ha indicado el directivo, que ha descartado que se produzcan bajadas a medio plazo.

Impacto en el margen de todos los agentes que intervienen en la cadena inmobiliaria

En opinión del directivo de ACR, “si no se complica más el panorama internacional, esperaríamos que los precios de la energía se normalizasen a finales del primer trimestre y el suministro de materias primas en verano. Además —prosigue—, la crisis inmobiliaria en China, que previsiblemente derivará en una reducción de la demanda de materiales básicos de construcción, podría influir positivamente en la consecución del esperado escenario de estabilidad en los costes".

Los precios de construcción ya marcaban máximos antes de la pandemia. En el cuarto trimestre de 2019, encadenaron 13 trimestres consecutivos de subidas. Una tendencia creciente que se rompió puntualmente con la crisis sanitaria en 2020, que llevó al Índice a registrar caídas que llegaron a alcanzar un 3,8% al cierre de ese año. Sin embargo, en 2021, los costes no solo retomaron la tendencia alcista de los últimos años, sino que esta se acrecentó considerablemente, especialmente durante el segundo semestre.

Constructores y promotores, preocupados

La escalada de los costes de construcción en el último año preocupa al sector en su conjunto. Y no es para menos si tenemos en cuenta que buena parte de los incrementos irán, previsiblemente, contra el margen promotor que está viendo cómo se dispara el coste de buena parte de sus partidas.

Así, por ejemplo, según un caso concreto de una gran promotora a la que ha tenido acceso El Confidencial, solo la partida del movimiento de tierras se ha incrementado un 20% respecto a lo inicialmente planificado. Un incremento cuyo culpable directo ha sido el aumento del precio del combustible.

Faltan grifos, ventanas, sanitarios… Los retrasos llegan al sector de la construcción

E. SanzNo hay 'stock'. Y sin algunos de esos suministros se ralentizan o se frenan las obras. Retrasos que conllevan un coste adicional que alguien deberá asumir tarde o temprano

También sube con fuerza la partida de cimentaciones y muros. En este caso, el incremento es del 24% y se debe, fundamentalmente, al aumento de los precios del acero (1,50%) y hormigón (30%), según los últimos datos del Ministerio de Transportes, Movilidad y Agenda Urbana. Incrementos que también han repercutido en encarecimiento de la estructura (+25%). Además, el alza de los precios de los productos cerámicos se han trasladado también a la partida de albañilería y fachada (5%). Incrementos que, en el caso concreto al que ha tenido acceso este diario, se han intentado compensar en las instalaciones de electricidad, alumbrado, fontanería o saneamiento de las viviendas mediante un cambio de proveedor o de marca.

Según los datos de ACR, la partida que más acusa las subidas es vidriería, con un incremento de precios que roza el 50% en 2021 debido, en gran medida, muy al incremento del precio de la energía. A continuación, se sitúan cimentación y estructura de las nuevas obras, que actúan como indicador adelantado del resto de partidas, y que marcan un incremento del 33,9% y un 33,5%, respectivamente. Destacan también los crecimientos de precios en divisiones interiores (+26,8%) y fachadas (+18,1%).

Promotoras y constructoras se lanzan a la industrialización para contener costes

En este contexto, la construcción industrializada ha dado un gran paso hacia adelante, erigiéndose como la solución a buena parte de estos incrementos de costes. Promotoras como Aedas Homes o Vía Ágora, constructoras como Avintia o ACR o ingenierías como Componentes y Unidades Constructivas son solo algunos ejemplos de esta apuesta decidida por la construcción industrializada, y no de una moda pasajera que puede caer en el olvido en unos años.

"Es clave avanzar hacia un marco de relación más colaborativo, en el que todas las partes implicadas trabajen juntas desde las fases iniciales de diseño de los proyectos, un momento también único para impulsar la construcción industrializada", asegura Guillermo Jiménez Michavila.

"Además de ofrecer ventajas incuestionables, como un mayor control de costes y plazos de los proyectos, la construcción industrializada es mucho más respetuosa con el planeta, contempla mayores estándares de calidad y, sobre todo, ofrece condiciones laborales de seguridad, estabilidad y confort que son mucho más inclusivas y atractivas para un sector en el que escasea el talento cualificado”.

En opinión del director general de ACR, “la única forma de afrontar este escenario y tratar de que los precios no afecten a la viabilidad y rentabilidad de los proyectos y compañías del sector es acelerar nuestra transformación hacia un modelo de construcción más industrial”, ha subrayado el director general de ACR.

Artículo Original elconfidencial.com

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